Adenomyosis: what is it, what is the cause and what is its treatment?


In order to understand what adenomyosis is, we must first know what causes it. Adenomyosis is a thickening of the uterine wall. That is, in the uterus there is the endometrium (which is the innermost layer of the uterus) and the myometrium (which is the muscular part of the uterus). Adenomyosis occurs when part of the former, from that innermost layer, passes into the myometrium. But what causes it and what is its treatment? In this article we investigate this disorder that affects part of the female population.

The difference between adenomyosis and endometriosis

These symptoms may sound familiar to you. Because if you’ve heard of endometriosis, the definition is perhaps similar. However, adenomyosis is the growth of endometrial tissue within the muscle of the uterus, and endometriosis occurs outside of the muscle.

The symptoms produced by adenomyosis are pain and cramps during menstruation, in the lower back, during sexual intercourse, bleeding, anemia… This occurs because the endometrial tissue moves (it grows and shrinks naturally) and having part of the endometrial tissue in it, when it does, it produces severe pain.

It affects 1% of women, between the ages of 35 and 50, who have been mothers. It is important to note that it is a benign disorder but that must be treated as it can affect, for example, a simple pregnancy, making it ectopic or causing abortions.

In addition, depending on how invaded the uterus is, we can distinguish two types of adenomyosis: diffuse (when a large part or all of the uterus is affected) and focal (in which there is a mass located within the myometrium).

Causes of adenomyosis

  • To this day, the causes that can lead to adenomyosis are not known. The possibility that it could be caused at some point by the breaking of the barrier between the endometrium and the myometrium is considered. That is, a direct invasion due to an incision during an operation, for example: a cesarean section.
  • On the other hand, there is the opinion that it can occur during childbirth (more specifically after giving birth, in the postpartum period). The lining of the uterus becomes inflamed and there is a rupture of cells that invade the myometrium.
  • Some experts in the field also consider the possibility that this is initially formed in the fetus and develops over the years. Another possibility is attributed to the excess of estrogen present in women between the ages of 35 and 50. From this age, women stop producing as much amount of estrogen and that would be one of the reasons why adenomyosis could disappear. In that age.

Treatment of adenomyosis

  • If you suspect that you may have adenomyosis, it is best to see your doctor. Through a resonance or a vaginal ultrasound, they will try to diagnose if you suffer from this disorder.
  • The most effective of the solutions is the total or partial removal of the uterus (hysterectomy) to permanently correct the disorder. However, the symptoms usually subside after the age of 50, which is why many women prefer not to opt for this radical option.
  • The use of anti-inflammatories can also be recommended to relieve pain, the contraceptive pill to control the release of hormones or, if it is believed that it may be caused by excess estrogen, as we have said above, it could be recommended to balance the levels with natural progesterone supplements.


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